Orthopaedy and traumatology
The locomotor system is the biggest system of organs in the human body – the anatomic units therein are all bones, tendons, joints and muscles. The orthopaedics deals with the causes, prevention and treatment of these organs disturbed functions, as well as with the patients rehabilitation. The traumatology studies the effect of different traumas on the human body. The aim of trauma specialists is to achieve the complete removal of traumas that have appeared by applying various diagnostic and healing methods.
The problems that are most frequently treated by orthopaedic and trauma specialists are:
· Fracture, dislocation
The fracture is partial or complete disorder of any bone in the human body. It is important whether the skin remains intact or ruptured at the fracture position. if the skin is lacerated there is a risk of infecting the soft tissues and occurrence of infections.
The dislocation is displacement of bones often accompanied by rupture of ligaments. The shoulder, elbow and ankle joints are most often affected. For dislocation also acute pain appears at the moment of trauma followed by restraining of joint movement.
The osteoarthrosis also known as arthrosis affect a large part of population. It occurs in result of changes of joint cartilage subsequently affecting the bones and joint capsule. The disease affects most frequently the small joints of fingers, the knee joints and the spinal column. Usually the arthroses are met after 40-50 years of age but sometimes they occur also in young people.
The osteoporosis is a disease of bone system feature by the low bone mass and structure changes of bone tissue. As in the course of disease no expressed symptoms appear, it is called the “Silent disease”. In the most cases the ill person understands for the condition at disease advanced stage.
The frequency of disease grows with the age - one woman in three of age above 50 years is affected by this disease, as well as one man in five .
The coxarthrosis is chronic inflammation of hip joint – load bearing joint, one of the big joints in human body, it is important for the proper posture and gait. The coxarthrosis proceeds with growing pain in the pelvis area. Initially the pain appears during motion in the joint, and in the course of time this is so also at rest .
The osteomyelitis is infectious inflammation of bone marrow caused by bacteria or fungi. The disease is characterised by acute pain the bone affected, reddening and swelling around it, indisposition, and in some cases – fever.
In children, the long bones are most frequently affected, and in adults - the bones of feet. The risk factors for the development of osteomyelitis are: diabetics, traumas undergone, drug addicts.